The shoulder is a ball (humeral head) and socket (glenoid) joint. This joint is particularly unstable on its own and you may like to think of it as a golf ball perched on to a golf tee. The joint is made stable by several important structures. These are the labrum (which deepens the socket), the ligaments and capsule (surrounds the entire joint) and the rotator cuff muscles (surrounds and blends into the capsule).
As we move our shoulder, the combination of these structures help to keep the ball centred onto the socket. When some of these mechanisms fail, the ball does not stay centred onto the socket and this causes pain or discomfort. Often, a sac or bursa that sits above the joint gets irritated when there are subtle tears or laxity in the ligament, capsule or muscle that keeps the ball centred.
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What surgeries are available?
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